Nuevo

4 de abril de 1940

4 de abril de 1940



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

4 de abril de 1940

Abril de 1940

1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
2930

Gran Bretaña

El gobierno forma una empresa para mantener el comercio con los Balcanes durante la guerra



Ecos inquietantes del horrible accidente de tren de Little Falls en 1940

1 de 3 Página interior del Times Union del 21 de abril de 1940, que muestra el fatal accidente de tren en Little Falls, Nueva York, donde una Central Lake Shore Limited en dirección oeste descarriló y cruzó dos vías matando a 30, incluido el ingeniero, e hiriendo a 100 el 19 de abril de 1940. (Times Union) Mostrar más Mostrar menos

2 de 3 Portada del Times Union del 21 de abril de 1940, que muestra el fatal accidente de tren en Little Falls, NY, donde una Central Lake Shore Limited en dirección oeste descarriló y cruzó dos vías matando a 30, incluido el ingeniero, e hiriendo a 100 el 19 de abril de 1940. (Times Union) Mostrar más Mostrar menos

El Lake Shore Limited tenía 21 minutos de retraso cuando se retiró de Albany a las 10:09 p.m. el 19 de abril de 1940, rastrillado por aguanieve y nieve húmeda.

El veterano ingeniero Jesse Earl, de 65 años, de Albany, a un mes de jubilarse, estaba ansioso por recuperar el tiempo perdido. Apretó el acelerador del motor número 5315 hasta que atravesó la tormentosa oscuridad a más de 70 mph.

Cerca de 200 personas iban a bordo del tren de 15 vagones. Algunos pasajeros dormían en literas en los nueve camas Pullman, arrullados por el suave balanceo mientras el tren avanzaba a través del Mohawk Valley, con destino a Chicago.

Earl había hecho esta carrera cientos de veces, sin incidentes, y era consciente de la necesidad de reducir la velocidad del tren a menos de 45 mph en la curva cerrada y traicionera a 72 millas al oeste de Albany en Little Falls, donde la vía estaba comprimida entre un acantilado. de lecho rocoso y el Canal Erie. Se la conocía como la curva del golfo. Y fue temido.

Fue el sitio de un accidente de tren mortal en 1903 y el ferrocarril central de Nueva York y mdash "rápido y seguro" fue su lema y mdash impuso una velocidad más baja en la curva de Little Falls en respuesta.

Tratando de afeitarse unos minutos preciosos, Earl esperó hasta que estuvo a más de una milla de la curva antes de aplicar los frenos. El tren viajaba a más de 60 mph y quizás tan rápido como 78 mph & mdash casi el doble de la velocidad & mdash recomendada cuando el motor descarriló y la locomotora se estrelló contra el acantilado. Explotó en una enorme bola de fuego de llama azul-naranja y humo negro acre que se vio y se escuchó en millas a la redonda.

Los coches y los rieles de acero se despegaron por la fuerza traumática y formaron un charco en un montón retorcido de metal desgarrado y triturado que envió un chillido mecánico agudo y agudo que resonó en el valle. El repugnante ruido fue seguido por los gritos apagados y quejumbrosos de los heridos.

El "peor accidente de tren del siglo" dejó 31 muertos y casi 140 heridos. Earl, el ingeniero, murió en el accidente, pero una larga investigación concluyó que su causa fue una velocidad excesiva y un error humano.

Bernard J. Malone Jr. creció en Little Falls y recordó haber escuchado a su difunto padre contar historias sobre cómo sacar cuerpos de los escombros hace 75 años.

"Era un abogado joven en la ciudad que respondió a una sirena y pidió a hombres sanos que se apresuraran a la Gulf Curve porque había habido un accidente terrible", dijo Malone, un juez retirado de la División de Apelaciones de la Corte Suprema del estado que nació hace tres años. después del naufragio. Su padre, Bernard J. Malone Sr., murió en 2004.

Malone dijo que su padre habló sobre lo que presenció después de la catástrofe del tren de Little Falls de la forma en que habló sobre sus experiencias en la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

"Habló de ello sólo cuando se le preguntó, sin muchos detalles", dijo Malone. Su padre le dijo a Malone y a sus hermanos cuando crecían que se mantuvieran alejados del lugar del accidente. "Dijo que era demasiado peligroso".

Cuando Malone, ahora abogado principal del bufete de abogados Whiteman Osterman & amp Hanna en Albany, vio la noticia en la televisión del accidente mortal del martes en Filadelfia & mdash, que mató a ocho personas e hirió a más de 200 & mdash, tuvo una sensación inquietante en el estómago. Fue devuelto a una infancia moldeada por el espantoso naufragio de Little Falls en Gulf Curve.

El martes, el ingeniero Brandon Bostian, de 32 años, de Queens, viajaba a 106 mph y mdash más del doble del límite de velocidad de 50 mph y mdash cuando entró en una curva cerrada y el tren descarriló.

"Todo lo que podía pensar era en Little Falls y el accidente de Gulf Curve", dijo Malone. "Hay algo terriblemente mal en esta era de tecnología avanzada cuando un joven se encuentra en una situación en la que esto podría volver a suceder".

El historiador ferroviario Richard Barrett, de Colonie, estaba igualmente preocupado por los ecos inquietantes entre los choques atribuidos a la velocidad excesiva en las curvas y el error humano que incluyen el accidente fatal de Little Falls hace 75 años, un accidente de 2013 de un tren Metro-North Railroad con una velocidad de 82 mph. en una curva de 30 mph que mató a cuatro personas e hirió a más de 70 en el Bronx y el accidente del martes en la curva en Filadelfia.

"El accidente de Little Falls fue una cicatriz horrible en la cara del New York Central y todavía pasaron siete años antes de que gastaran el dinero y enderezaran la Gulf Curve", dijo Barrett, fideicomisario de la New York Central System Historical Society. Asistió a la convención de la sociedad en Utica del 1 al 3 de mayo y los miembros visitaron el lugar del accidente de Little Falls, donde hay una placa conmemorativa.

"El error humano y la velocidad excesiva en las curvas continúan causando choques de trenes fatales 75 años después de Little Falls", dijo Barrett. "¿Cómo pudo el ingeniero en Filadelfia no darse cuenta de que estaba haciendo el doble del límite de velocidad al llegar a la curva en Filadelfia? Es aterrador que se reduzca a una sola persona porque los humanos cometen errores. Se duermen. Se adormecen. Se desconectan. Se distraen con su teléfono celular ".

Barrett ha sido durante mucho tiempo un defensor del control positivo de trenes, o PTC, un sistema que monitorea y controla la operación de un tren y puede anular a un ingeniero aplicando los frenos en casos de velocidad excesiva al acercarse a curvas cerradas.

"La historia sigue repitiéndose desde 1940 y el naufragio de Little Falls", dijo Barrett. "La tecnología existe. PTC hace mucho tiempo que se necesita. No hay razón para no usarla".

Barrett notó en ese mismo tramo de vía en el vecindario Port Richmond de Filadelfia el 6 de septiembre de 1943, el Congressional Limited del ferrocarril de Pensilvania descarriló después de que un eje se sobrecalentara y se rompiera, causando un choque que mató a 79 personas e hirió a otras 117. Fue uno de los peores desastres ferroviarios en la historia de Estados Unidos.

"Los documentales sobre los peores choques de trenes siempre muestran choques de Congressional Limited y Little Falls", dijo Barrett. "Desafortunadamente, no hemos aprendido las lecciones de la historia".


4 de abril de 1940 - Historia

Cumpleaños famosos por mes:

El 1 de abril de 1815 nace Otto von Bismarck, canciller y estadista alemán.

El 1 de abril de 1928 nace Jane Powell, actriz y cantante.

1 de abril de 1932 nace Debbie Reynolds, actriz.

1 de abril de 1939 nace Ali MacGraw, actriz.

1 de abril de 1947 - David Eisenhower, autor, nieto de Pres. Dwight Eisenhower

1 de abril de 1963 - Hospital General se estrenó en televisión.

2 de abril de 1513: Ponce de León descubre Florida.

2 de abril de 1805 - Hans Christian Anderson, autor infantil.

2 de abril de 1834 - Frederic Auguste Bartholdi, esculpió la Estatua de la Libertad.

El 2 de abril de 1908 nace Buddy Ebsen, actor.

2 de abril de 1914 nace Sir Alec Guinness, actor.

2 de abril de 1920: Jack Webb, actor, "Joe Friday" en la serie de televisión "Dragnet".

El 2 de abril de 1939 nace Marvin Gaye, cantante.

El 2 de abril de 1955 nace Dana Carvey, actor, comediante.

3 de abril de 1783 - Washington Irving, autor.

3 de abril de 1924 nace Marlon Brando, actor.

El 3 de abril de 1924 nace Doris Day, actriz y cantante estadounidense.

3 de abril de 1926: Virgil "Gus" Grissom, astronauta, murió en un incendio durante una simulación a bordo del Apolo 1.

3 de abril de 1942 nace Wayne Newton, cantante y actor.

El 3 de abril de 1944 nace Tony Orlando, cantante.

El 3 de abril de 1958 nace Alec Baldwin, actor estadounidense.

3 de abril de 1961 nace Eddie Murphy, actor y comediante estadounidense.

El 3 de abril de 1970 nace Rick Schroder, actor.

3 de abril de 1971 - Picabo Street, esquiador campeón olímpico.

4 de abril de 1895 - Arthur Murray, fama de estudio de danza.

4 de abril de 1906: John Cameron Swayze, presentador de noticias de televisión.

4 de abril de 1915 nace Muddy Waters, cantante de blues.

4 de abril de 1924 nace Gil Hodges, jugador de béisbol, gerente.

4 de abril de 1926 nace Cloris Leachman, actriz.

4 de abril de 1946 nace Craig T.Nelson, actor.

4 de abril de 1965 nace Robert Downey Jr., actor.

5 de abril de 1900 nace Spencer Tracy, actor.

El 5 de abril de 1908 nace Bette Davis, actriz.

5 de abril de 1916 nace Gregory Peck, actor.

5 de abril de 1920 - Arthur Hailey, autor.

El 5 de abril de 1934 nace Frank Gorshin, actor, comediante.

5 de abril de 1937: Colin Powell, presidente del Estado Mayor Conjunto, Secretario de Estado.

5 de abril de 1941 nace Michael Moriarty, actor.

5 de abril de 1949: Judith Resnick, astronauta, murió en la explosión del transbordador espacial Challenger.

El 6 de abril de 1483 nace Rafael (Sanzio), pintor y arquitecto italiano.

6 de abril de 1870 nace Oskar Straus, compositor austríaco.

El 6 de abril de 1892 nace Lowell Thomas, locutor, periodista.

6 de abril de 1928: James D. Watson, bioquímico, co-descubrió la estructura del ADN.

El 6 de abril de 1937 nace Merle Haggard, cantante y compositora.

El 6 de abril de 1937 nace Billy Dee Williams, actor.

El 6 de abril de 1947 nace John Ratzenberger, actor.

El 6 de abril de 1952 nace Marilu Henner, actriz.

El 6 de abril de 1976 nace Candace Cameron, actriz.

7 de abril de 742: Carlomagno, rey de los francos.

El 7 de abril de 1770 nace William Wordsworth, poeta, filósofo.

El 7 de abril de 1897 nace Walter Winchell, periodista, locutor.

El 7 de abril de 1915 nace Billie Holiday, cantante de jazz.

El 7 de abril de 1928 nace James Garner, actor.

El 7 de abril de 1933 nace Wayne Rogers, actor.

7 de abril de 1939 nace Francis Ford Coppola, cineasta.

El 7 de abril de 1951 nace Janis Ian, cantante, compositora.

El 7 de abril de 1954 nace Jackie Chan, actor.

El 7 de abril de 1964 nace Russell Crowe, actor.

8 de abril de 563 aC - Buda (Siddhartha Gautama), líder religioso, fundado del budismo

El 8 de abril de 1918 nace Betty Ford, Primera Dama de los Estados Unidos.

El 8 de abril de 1928 nace John Gavin, actor.

8 de abril de 1938 - Kofi Annan, secretario general de la ONU.

El 8 de abril de 1940 nace John Havlicek, jugador de baloncesto.

El 8 de abril de 1963 nace Julian Lennon, cantante, músico, hijo de John y Cynthia Lennon.

8 de abril de 1968 - Patricia Arquette, actriz ganadora del Oscar.

9 de abril de 1879 - W. C. Fields, actor.

9 de abril de 1883: Frank King, dibujante, crea "Gasoline Alley".

9 de abril de 1926 - Hugh Hefner, editor de Playboy.

9 de abril de 1928 nace Tom Lehrer, compositor.

9 de abril de 1939 nace Michael Learned, actriz.

9 de abril de 1954 nace Dennis Quaid, actor.

9 de abril de 1957 nace Seve Ballesteros, golfista.

10 de abril de 1794 - El comodoro Matthew Perry, abrió relaciones navales con Japón.

El 10 de abril de 1847 nace Joseph Pulitzer, periodista, editor.

10 de abril de 1882: Frances Perkins, primera mujer miembro del gabinete de los EE. UU., Secretaria de Trabajo.

El 10 de abril de 1915 nace Harry Morgan, actor.

10 de abril de 1921 nace Chuck Connors, actor.

10 de abril de 1932 nace Omar Sharif, actor.

El 10 de abril de 1936 nace John Madden, entrenador de fútbol, ​​comentarista deportivo.

El 10 de abril de 1938 nace Don Meredith, jugador de fútbol, ​​comentarista deportivo.

El 10 de abril de 1951 nace Steven Seagal, actor.

10 de abril de 1982 - Actriz, "Grey's Anatomy", "The Practice".

11 de abril de 1913 nace Oleg Cassini, diseñador de moda.

11 de abril de 1928 nace Ethel Kennedy, esposa del senador Robert F. Kennedy.

El 11 de abril de 1932 nace Joel Gray, actor.

11 de abril de 1939 - Louise Lasser, actriz, "Mary Hartman, Mary Hartman".

11 de abril de 1950 nace Bill Irwin, actor, coreógrafo.

12 de abril de 1777 nace Henry Clay, estadista, presidente de la Cámara.

12 de abril de 1916 - Beverly Cleary, autora de niños.

12 de abril de 1919 nace Ann Miller, actriz, bailarina.

12 de abril de 1926 nace Jane Withers, actriz.

12 de abril de 1930 - Tiny Tim, actor, músico, "Tip Toe through the Tulip".

12 de abril de 1947 nace Tom Clancy, autor.

12 de abril de 1947 nace David Letterman, personalidad de televisión, comediante.

12 de abril de 1949 - Scott F. Turow, autor.

12 de abril de 1950 nace David Cassidy, cantante, actor.

12 de abril de 1956 nace Andy García, actor.

12 de abril de 1971 - Shannen Doherty, actriz, "Beverly Hills 90210".

12 de abril de 1979 nace Claire Danes, actriz.

13 de abril de 1743 - Thomas Jefferson, tercer presidente de los Estados Unidos (1801-1809)

13 de abril de 1866: Butch Cassidy, forajido del Lejano Oeste.

13 de abril de 1899: Alfred Butts, inventó el juego de mesa "Scrabble".

13 de abril de 1923 - Don Adams, actor de televisión, "Maxwell Smart" en "Get Smart"

13 de abril de 1945 - Tony Dow, actor interpretó a & quot; Wally Cleaver & quot en la comedia televisiva & quotLeave it to Beaver & quot.

13 de abril de 1950 nace Ron Perlman, actor.

13 de abril de 1951 nace Peabo Bryson, cantante.

13 de abril de 1963 - Gary Karsparov, maestro de ajedrez ruso.

13 de abril de 1970 - Rick Shroefder, actor, & quotSilver Spoons & quot, & quotNYPD Blue & quot.

14 de abril de 1866 - Anne Sullivan, enseñó a Helen Keller

El 14 de abril de 1925 nace Rod Steiger, actor.

14 de abril de 1935 nace Loretta Lynn, cantante de country western.

El 14 de abril de 1940 nace Julie Christie, actriz.

14 de abril de 1941 nace Pete Rose, jugador de béisbol, gerente.

14 de abril de 1960: Brad Garrett, actor de la serie de televisión "Robert & quoton" Everybody Loves Raymond ".

14 de abril de 1977 - Sarah Michelle Gellar, actriz, "Buffy, la cazavampiros".

El 15 de abril de 1452 nace Leonardo da Vinci, artista, escultor, inventor.

El 15 de abril de 1741 nace Charles Wilson Peale, retratista.

El 15 de abril de 1843 nace Henry James, novelista, cuentista, crítico.

15 de abril de 1894 - Nikita Khrushchev, primer ministro de la Unión Soviética, famosa cita de la Guerra Fría a EE. UU .: & quot; Te enterraremos & quot

El 15 de abril de 1924 nace Henry Mancini, actor estadounidense.

15 de abril de 1933: Elizabeth Montgomery, actriz de "Samantha Stevens" en la serie de televisión "Bewitched".

El 15 de abril de 1933 nace Roy Clark, cantante, músico.

El 15 de abril de 1957 nace Evelyn Ashford, campeona olímpica, velocista.

El 15 de abril de 1959 nace Emma Thompson, actriz ganadora del Oscar.

15 de abril de 1971 - Selena Quintanilla, cantante ganadora de premios de EE. UU.

El 15 de abril de 1982 nace Seth Rogen, actor.

15 de abril de 1990 - Emma Thompson, actriz francesa, películas de Harry Potter, La Bella y la Bestia.

16 de abril de 1867 - Wilbur Wright, aviador pionero.

El 16 de abril de 1889 nace Charlie Chaplin, actor cómico, cineasta.

16 de abril de 1921 nace Peter Ustinov, actor.

16 de abril de 1924 nace Henry Mancini, compositor.

16 de abril de 1929 nace Edie Adams, cantante, actriz.

16 de abril de 1930 nace Herbie Mann, músico de jazz.

16 de abril de 1935 nace Bobby Vinton, cantante.

16 de abril de 1939 nace Dusty Springfield, estrella del pop británico.

16 de abril de 1947: Kareem Abdul Jabbar, uno de los mejores jugadores de la historia de la NBA. Nacido como Frederick Lewis Alcindor Jr.

16 de abril de 1952: Bill Belichick, entrenador en jefe de los equipos de la Superbowl de los New England Patriots.

16 de abril de 1955 nace Ellen Barkin, actriz.

16 de abril de 1971 - Selena Quintanilla, popular cantante hispana, trágicamente asesinada en la cima de su carrera.

El 17 de abril de 1837 nace John Pierpont Morgan, financiero, filántropo.

17 de abril de 1894 - Nikita Khrushchev, líder soviético, cita famosa: "¡Te enterraremos!"

El 17 de abril de 1897 nace Thornton Wilder, dramaturgo, novelista.

El 17 de abril de 1918 nace William Holden, actor.

El 17 de abril de 1923 nace Harry Reasoner, presentador de televisión, periodista.

17 de abril de 1961: Norman "Boomer" Esiason, mariscal de campo de la NFL.

17 de abril de 1972 - Jennifer Garner, actriz de "Sidney Bristow" en la serie de televisión "Alias".

17 de abril de 1974 - Victoria Addams, cantante de "Posh Spice" de Spice Girls.

El 18 de abril de 1857 nace Clarence Darrow, abogado.

El 18 de abril de 1922 nace Barbara Hale, actriz.

18 de abril de 1946: Jim "Catfish" Hunter, lanzador de béisbol.

18 de abril de 1946 nace Hayley Mills, actriz.

El 18 de abril de 1947 nace Dorothy Lyman, actriz.

18 de abril de 1953 - Rick Moranis, actor, "Cariño, encogí a los niños".

18 de abril de 1963 - Conan O'Brien, programa de televisión nocturno.

18 de abril de 1992 - Cloe Bennet, actriz interpretada en & quotAgents of & quotS.H.I.E.L.D. & Quot.

El 19 de abril de 1903 nace Eliot Ness, abogado estadounidense.

19 de abril de 1912: Glenn T. Seaborg, químico, descubrió el plutonio.

19 de abril de 1925 nace Hugh O'Brien, actor.

El 19 de abril de 1935 nace Dudley Moore, actor.

19 de abril de 1962 - Al Unser Jr., corredor de autos.

19 de abril de 1968 nace Ashley Judd, actriz.

19 de abril de 1979 nace Kate Hudson, actriz.

El 20 de abril de 1889 nace Adolf Hitler, dictador nazi de Alemania.

El 20 de abril de 1908 nace Lionel Hampton, director de orquesta, músico.

20 de abril de 1941 nace Ryan O'Neal, actor.

20 de abril de 1949 nace Jessica Lange, actriz ganadora del Oscar.

El 20 de abril de 1951 nace Luther Vandross, cantante y compositor.

20 de abril de 19770 - Shemar Moore, actor, & quotS.W.A.T. & Quot; & quot; Mentes criminales & quot.

20 de abril de 1973 - Carmen Electra, actriz, & quotBaywatch & quot

21 de abril de 1915 nace Anthony Quinn, actor.

21 de abril de 1926 nace la Reina Isabel II, Reina de Inglaterra.

21 de abril de 1935 nace Charles Grodin, actor.

21 de abril de 1951 nace Tony Danza, actor.

21 de abril de 1958 nace Andie MacDowell, actriz, modelo.

21 de abril de 1961 nace Don Mattingly, jugador de béisbol.

El 22 de abril de 1908 nace Eddie Albert, actor.

El 22 de abril de 1928 nace Aaron Spelling, escritor de televisión, productor.

22 de abril de 1936 nace Glen Campbell, cantante.

El 22 de abril de 1936 nace Jack Nicholson, actor, director, productor y escritor ganador del Oscar.

El 22 de abril de 1939 nace Jason Miller, dramaturgo, actor.

22 de abril de 1950 nace Peter Frampton, cantante.

23 de abril de 1564 - William Shakespeare, dramaturgo, poeta. Fallecimiento: 23 de abril de 1616.

23 de abril de 1791: James Buchanan, decimoquinto presidente de Estados Unidos (1857-1861)

23 de abril de 1928 nace Shirley Temple Black, actriz infantil, diplomática.

23 de abril de 1936 nace Roy Orbison, cantante.

23 de abril de 1940: Lee Majors, actor, "Six Million Dollar Man".

23 de abril de 1942 nace Sandra Dee, actriz.

23 de abril de 1960 - Valerie Bertinelli, actriz, "Un día a la vez".

23 de abril de 1961 nace George Lopez, actor y comediante.

24 de abril de 1766: Robert Bailey Thomas, fundador y editor de "The Farmer's Almanac".

24 de abril de 1884: Isoroku Yamamoto, comandante naval japonés que lideró la invasión de Pearl Harbor, comenzando la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

El 24 de abril de 1905 nace Robert Penn Warren, poeta, novelista.

El 24 de abril de 1934 nace Shirley MacLaine, actriz, bailarina.

El 24 de abril de 1942 nace Barbra Streisand, actriz, directora, cantante.

El 24 de abril de 1955 nace Michael O'Keefe, actor.

24 de abril de 1982: Kelly Clarkson, primera ganadora de "American Idol".

El 25 de abril de 1874 nace Guglielmo Marconi, inventor de la telegrafía inalámbrica.

25 de abril de 1906 - William J. Brennan Jr., juez de la Corte Suprema.

El 25 de abril de 1917 nace Ella Fitzgerald, cantante de jazz.

El 25 de abril de 1932 nace Meadowlark Lemon, jugador de baloncesto, Harlem Globetrotters.

25 de abril de 1940 nace Al Pacino, actor.

25 de abril de 1969 nace Renee Zellweger, actriz ganadora del Oscar.

26 de abril de 1564 nace William Shakespeare, escritor y actor inglés.

El 26 de abril de 1785 nace John James Audubon, artista, naturalista.

26 de abril de 1798 nace Eugene Delacroix, pintor.

26 de abril de 1822 - Frederick Law Olmsted, arquitecto paisajista, diseñador de parques.

El 26 de abril de 1894 nace Rudolf Hess, líder nazi.

26 de abril de 1900 - Charles Francis Richter, físico, sismólogo, desarrolló la escala de Richter.

26 de abril de 1936 nace Carol Burnett, actriz, comediante.

26 de abril de 1942 nace Bobby Rydell, cantante.

26 de Aoruk, 1965 - Kevin James, actor estadounidense, protagonizó 'King of Queens'

El 26 de abril de 1970 nace Melania Trump, supermodelo eslovena, Primera Dama de los Estados Unidos de América.

El 27 de abril de 1521 nace Fernando de Magallanes, explorador portugués.

27 de abril de 1822 - Ulysses S. Grant, decimoctavo presidente de los Estados Unidos, general de la Guerra Civil (1869-1877)

27 de abril de 1896 nace Rogers Hornsby, jugador de béisbol.

27 de abril de 1922 nace Jack Klugman, actor.

27 de abril de 1927 - Coretta Scott King, líder de derechos civiles, esposa de Martin Luther King Jr.

27 de abril de 1932 - Casey Kasem, personalidad de radio.

27 de abril de 1937 nace Sandy Dennis, actriz.

27 de abril de 1959 nace Sheena Easton, cantante.

28 de abril de 1758 - James Monroe, quinto presidente de Estados Unidos (1817-1825)

El 28 de abril de 1878 nace Lionel Barrymore, actor.

28 de abril de 1937- Saddam Hussein, presidente iraquí

28 de abril de 1941 nace Ann-Margret, actriz, cantante.

28 de abril de 1950: Jay Leno, comediante de televisión, "The Tonight Show with Jay Leno".

28 de abril de 1974 - Penélope Cruz - Actriz ganadora del Oscar.

28 de abril de 1981 - Jessica Alba, actriz, & quotSin City & quot.

29 de abril de 1727 -Jean-Georges Noverre, creador del ballet moderno.

29 de abril de 1863 - William Randolph Hearst, editor de periódicos, editor.

29 de abril de 1899 - Duke Ellington, músico de jazz, director de orquesta.

29 de abril de 1901: Emperador Hirohito, emperador de Japón durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

29 de abril de 1915 - Donald Mills, cantante y miembro de los hermanos Mills.

29 de abril de 1938: Bernie Madoff, empresario, inversor, corredor de bolsa estadounidense, condenado por un importante esquema Ponzi, que estafó a miles de personas.

29 de abril de 1951 nace Dale Earnhardt, corredor de autos.

29 de abril de 1954 nace Jerry Seinfeld, actor, comediante.

29 de abril de 1958- Michelle Pfeiffer, actriz.

29 de abril de 1970 - Andre Agassi, campeón de tenis.

29 de abril de 1970: Uma Thurman, actriz, & quotPulp Fiction & quot

El 30 de abril de 1933 nace Willie Nelson, cantante de country.

30 de abril de 1938 nace Gary Collins, actor.

30 de abril de 1945 - Michael J. Smith, astronauta, murió en la explosión del transbordador espacial Challenger.

30 de abril de 1948 nace Perry King, actor.

30 de abril de 1961 nace Isaiah Thomas, jugador de baloncesto de la NBA.

30 de abril de 1975: John Galecki, actor, interpretó a su hijo Rusty en la película & quot; Vacaciones de Navidad & quot; Leonard en la serie de televisión & quot; Teoría del Big Bang & quot.

30 de abril de 1981 - Kunal Nayyar, actor indio-inglés, interpretó a & quotRaj Koothrappali & quot en la serie de televisión & quotBig Bang Theory & quot.

El 30 de abril de 1982 nace Kirsten Dunst, actriz.

Tarjetas electrónicas ¡Lo tenemos cubierto con tarjetas electrónicas gratuitas para cumpleaños y casi cualquier otro día festivo, ocasión, evento o ningún evento en absoluto!

Holiday Insights, donde cada día es un día festivo, un día extraño o loco, una celebración o un evento especial. Únase a nosotros en el divertido calendario diario todos y cada uno de los días del año.

¿Sabías? Hay literalmente miles de feriados diarios, eventos especiales y celebraciones, más de uno por cada día del año. Muchas de estas fiestas son nuevas. Se están creando más vacaciones de forma regular. En Holiday Insights, nos esforzamos por investigar y documentar a fondo los detalles de cada uno, de la manera más completa y precisa posible.


La invasión de Noruega fracasa en abril de 1940, ¿qué sigue?

Si quieres leer una historia fallida de Invasion of Norway bien escrita, te sugiero esto:

y todas sus partes, basta con hacer una búsqueda en Norway Fiasco. El autor, HMS Pinafore, es un excelente escritor y siempre es un placer leer sus historias, incluso la de la crisis de los misiles en Cuba.

Richter von Manthofen

La lección inmediata aprendida sería que las invasiones navales están destinadas al fracaso si no tienes la superiotidad naval.

Suponga que el alemán APRENDE la lección.

Esto alejaría al BoB, ya que esta era la preparación para & quotUSM & quot, también conocido como león marino.

Esto a cambio dejaría a la Luftwaffe con muchos más cazas y bombarderos y tripulaciones aéreas experimentadas.

Después de la caída de Francia, el Reino Unido no está en condiciones de invadir Alemania, incluso con bases en Noruega.

Seguro que Noruega sería una gran base para los bombarderos del Reino Unido, pero en realidad es un pasillo estrecho hacia Alemania y fácilmente cubierto por la Luftwaffe (BoB al revés).

Algunas brechas en el espacio aéreo sueco podrían empujar a Suecia aún más hacia el apoyo (económico) de Alemania.

Finlandia podría permitir que Alemania organice un ataque en el norte de Noruega desde tierra.

Si los Paras alemanes no se utilizan en Creta pero (mediados-finales) 1940 para hacer un desembarco a gran escala en el sur de Noruega, incluso podrían tener éxito en mantener y mantener el área clave (y Skagerak es más pequeño que el Canal y con Dinamarca capturada (suponga Weserübung Süd todavía tiene éxito) los alemanes no tienen agua para cruzar.

Entonces, a menos que el Reino Unido envíe muchas tropas a Noruega (podrían ser retiradas de Canadá y usar el francés libre), es solo un momento en que los empujes del norte o del sur se encuentren.

Botella doble

Jukra

Sharlin

HMS Warspite

Richter von Manthofen

Sharlin

De la Tour

Guerrero ártico

DaleCoz

Uff Da el optimista

Es cierto que lo que debería haber enfatizado mejor es el hecho de que ahora el MM no tiene que viajar en aguas tan peligrosas fuera de su propio país ocupado.

Además, Noruega podría movilizar a más de 200 000 hombres en un período de 2 meses, aunque de diferente calidad.
El caso es que Noruega no es un país llano en el que es fácil luchar, tiene una naturaleza tan dura que les da a los defensores oportunidades de oro para emboscadas, trampas y comercio de tierras por tiempo.

Nuevamente, si el gobierno noruego no hubiera actuado como bebés indecisos, podrían haber movilizado algunas fuerzas después de Altmark para demostrar que tenían la intención de permanecer fuera de la guerra, e incluso esto sería suficiente para hacer la vida un infierno para los 8000 hombres alemanes. tomó la parte sur del país con!

Von Adler

En primer lugar, aclaremos algunos conceptos erróneos.

Narvik fue destruido como puerto para el envío de mineral de hierro en 1940. Durante los siguientes cuatro años, hasta que Suecia cerró los envíos de mineral, el mineral se transportó desde Kiruna sobre Luleå hasta Oxelösund (al sur de Estocolmo), donde se recargó en barcos y se transportó a través de el Báltico a los puertos alemanes.

El control de Noruega no da a los británicos acceso al Báltico. El sur del Mar del Norte permaneció bajo control alemán hasta 1945, principalmente porque es el principal mar de minas, al igual que la mayor parte del Báltico (todavía hay alrededor de 40-90 000 minas en el Báltico y el sur del Mar del Norte de la Primera Guerra Mundial y la Segunda Guerra Mundial). Los británicos utilizaron MTB para mover agentes, evacuar personal clave (aviadores caídos, combatientes de la resistencia noruega, etc.) y transportar rodamientos de bolas de alta calidad desde Suecia durante la guerra, navegando de noche a altas velocidades.

Los suecos y los finlandeses negociaron una alianza estatal (cercana a una unión, una alianza militar y una confederación política) durante la primavera de 1940, pero la resistencia alemana y soviética y el revanchismo finlandés le pusieron fin (Suecia quería que la alianza fuera neutral y esa postura ser aceptado tanto por los alemanes como por los soviéticos). Con los aliados en control en Noruega, la opinión alemana importa mucho menos, y ellos y los soviéticos (que no quieren la guerra contra los aliados o Alemania en este momento, Stalin quería que los aliados y los alemanes se desangraran entre sí antes de que él). intervino) en realidad podría parecer favorable a una alianza neutral sueco-finlandesa, ya que aseguraría el flanco norte para ambos.

Una vez que los alemanes tuvieron el control de las minas de hierro de Francia y Bélgica, no dependieron del mineral de hierro sueco. El mineral sueco era de alta calidad y fácil de usar en el proceso de bessemer para crear acero de alta calidad, pero los alemanes PUEDEN prescindir. Suecia necesita alrededor de 5,5 millones de toneladas de coque y carbón al año, y Alemania podría entregar este 1940-1944, cuando los aliados occidentales no pudieron. A menos que los aliados puedan reemplazar esto, Suecia continuará enviando mineral de hierro a Alemania. OTL, los aliados occidentales exigieron una reducción en el envío, y Suecia cumplió, pero dio prioridad a los alemanes en el mineral de alta ley, lo que hizo felices a todas las partes.

El control aliado de Noruega podría significar una alianza estatal sueco-finlandesa, no más participación finlandesa en la guerra y tal vez una Francia que continúe luchando desde el norte de África.

DaleCoz

Por lo tanto, si los aliados tienen suerte, el único buque de guerra de superficie alemán digno de mención que sobreviviría a la operación sería el crucero ligero Emden. Apenas lo suficiente para tirar de Sealion.

Los británicos también estarán mucho menos asustados por el Sealion, dado que el RN acaba de demostrar que puede vencer fácilmente un intento de aterrizaje alemán, hundiendo la mayor parte de la Kriegsmarine en el proceso.

Si cuenta tanto los barcos hundidos como los dañados, la Kriegsmarine no tenía muchos barcos de superficie listos para la acción después de Noruega históricamente.

Finalmente, las mariposas PUEDEN afectar la Batalla de Francia. Digamos, por ejemplo, que los panzers que fueron a Noruega se envían a las Ardenas, agregando 1-2 días al cuello de botella, o que se toman diferentes decisiones con respecto a las operaciones de la Luftwaffe en Sedan, lo que podría conducir a una falla en el cruce inicial. .

Si bien existe una pequeña posibilidad de que esto se convierta en una derrota alemana, puede resultar en cosas como pérdidas alemanas mucho mayores o un gobierno francés que decida continuar desde el norte de África. Sin embargo, mi favor personal (sobre el que una vez estaba planeando hacer un TL) es que retrasa un freno alemán el tiempo suficiente para que los Aliados lancen la Operación Pike.

Ciertamente es posible que las mariposas noruegas afecten la Batalla de Francia, pero hasta donde yo sé, no se enviaron divisiones panzer a Noruega en la invasión inicial, o posteriormente entre esa invasión y la invasión de Francia. Las tropas alemanas eran infantería (5 divisiones) o divisiones de montaña (1 división). La única parte de su orden de batalla que podría haber contenido tanques fue una brigada de infantería motorizada que históricamente solo fue a Dinamarca y luego fue enviada a la Batalla de Francia a partir del 13 de mayo. Incluso si esa brigada llegara a Francia un poco antes, sería una adición trivial a la masa de 7 divisiones panzer y numerosas divisiones motorizadas en el área crucial.

Fuentes más probables de mariposas, que pueden cortar en ambos sentidos: (1) Los aliados tendrían más confianza y los alemanes menos, tanto a nivel individual como de mando. Eso podría llevar a Hitler a poner más restricciones a la carrera Panzer hacia el mar. Por otro lado, podría llevar a los británicos a retrasar el inicio de la evacuación de Dunkerque por uno o dos días a favor de continuar apoyando los intentos franceses de organizar una contraofensiva para cortar el corredor Panzer. Es difícil saber cómo actuarían los aliados más confiados y los alemanes menos confiados.

(2) Al menos algunos buques de guerra aliados no estarían disponibles. Los británicos posiblemente podrían hundir la mayor parte de la armada alemana en la operación de Noruega, pero hundirla sin perder al menos algunas naves capitales adicionales y presumiblemente los destructores acompañantes nos lleva al territorio de Mary Sue. Los británicos probablemente tendrían menos barcos disponibles en la Batalla de Francia y la evacuación de Dunkerque. Por otro lado, la armada británica tendría más libertad de acción sin Kriegsmarine de la que hablar, al menos hasta que los alemanes pusieran en servicio el Bismarck en agosto de 1940, lo sometieran a pruebas en el mar y rasparon algunos barcos acompañantes.

(3) Chamberlain probablemente todavía sería primer ministro británico durante la Batalla de Francia, como se señaló anteriormente. Eso es un comodín. ¿Habría podido proporcionar el tipo de liderazgo inspirador durante y después de Dunkerque que hizo Churchill? ¿Daría la orden de atacar a la flota francesa para evitar que cayera en manos alemanas? ¿Dejaría de enviar aviones británicos a la Batalla de Francia cuando fuera obvio que la batalla estaba perdida? ¿Resistiría el impulso de negociar con Hitler después de la caída de Francia?


Sello de Booker T. Washington

--> 10c Prueba de placa certificada por Booker T. Washington, aprobada el 25 de enero de 1940

El 7 de abril de 1940, el Departamento de Correos (POD) emitió un sello en honor al educador afroamericano Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) como parte de su Serie de estadounidenses famosos. El primer sello de la nación para honrar a un afroamericano, ocupa un lugar único en la historia de Estados Unidos. Las luchas sociales, económicas y legislativas desde 1940 han producido una comprensión y una aceptación más profundas entre los grupos raciales. Hoy, el Servicio Postal de los Estados Unidos (USPS) honra regularmente a los afroamericanos y sus contribuciones muy variadas a la nación y al mundo.

Nacido como esclavo en Hale's Ford, Virginia, Washington sirvió como modelo a seguir para otros afroamericanos con dificultades y, como fundador de la Escuela Industrial Normal Tuskegee de Alabama (rebautizada como Instituto Tuskegee en 1937), influyó profundamente en la autoestima y la autoestima de la comunidad. -dependencia. En 1938, el presidente Franklin D. Roosevelt, respondiendo a numerosas peticiones de simpatizantes afroamericanos, reconoció la oportunidad de tal sello y ordenó que Washington fuera considerado para esta importante serie de sellos.

10c Booker T.Washington, portada del primer día, 1940

El Mayor Robert Richard Wright, Sr., entre otros, había presionado agresivamente para obtener un sello en honor a Booker T. Washington desde que Roosevelt asumió el cargo en 1933. Cuando Wright leyó la decisión del POD de presentar a Washington en el sello de 10 ¢, anunciado en 1939, reflexionó with gratification, [the stamp] "comes pretty nearly within the limit of seventy-five years of Negro Emancipation.”¹ He objected, however, to its high denomination, preferring to see it as one of the lower-priced, more affordable denominations used by the public daily. He worried that the cost of the 10¢ stamp "will not induce a large first day sale . . . among colored people.”² Echoing Wright's concerns, los Washington Tribune recommended that its readers buy the stamp for special delivery and parcel post mailings. "Let's overlook no chance to use these new stamps which honor our eminent educator,” urged the newspaper's editor in a special issue released on March 23, 1940.

10c Booker T. Washington first day cover mailed by Postmaster General James A. Farley, 1940

Numerous institutions, all important in the lives of African-Americans, clamored to host the stamp's first day of issue ceremony. The POD selected Tuskegee Institute, founded by Washington in 1881, for this watershed ceremony's location. Guests gathered in the Institute Chapel. Postmaster General James A. Farley attended the ceremony and afterwards, joined by the Tuskegee Club of Montgomery, Alabama, placed a wreath at Washington's tomb. George W. Peterson, an African-American Civil Service employee attached to the POD's Division of Stamps, attended and helped Tuskegee's postmaster, R. H. Harris, prepare the first day covers. Also an African-American, Harris attracted recognition in The Washington Tribune (March 23, 1940) as "one of the few colored postmasters in the United States.” All told, twenty-five extra clerks assisted Harris in preparing the first day covers.

First day enclosure from PMG Farley to his wife Bess, 1940

Enthusiasm for the Booker T. Washington stamp and its momentous significance for the African-American population prompted two official second day of issue ceremonies, events unprecedented in philatelic history—one in New York City and the other in Philadelphia. Unable to attend the ceremony at Tuskegee, Major Robert Richard Wright, Sr., attended Philadelphia's ceremony, where he purchased a batch of 1,000 stamps. The press focused attention not only on Washington but also on Major Wright, a prominent African-American man in his own right. Wright, like Washington, had been born a slave. He had carved-out a distinctive niche within the community as an educator and administrator, through military service during the Spanish-American War, and as a banker.

Tuskegee Institute owns the first sheet of Booker T. Washington stamps sold, but it passed through several hands before reaching its final destination. Captain Alvin J. Neely, Tuskegee General Alumni Association's executive secretary, purchased the sheet, autographed by James A. Farley. Neely presented the sheet to Washington's daughter, Portia Washington Pittman, who then gave it to Dr. William J. Schieffelin, Tuskegee's chairman of the board, for preservation. Adding to the memorable event, the Tuskegee Philatelic Club issued covers with a hand-stamped cachet showing a likeness of Washington's graveside monument.

3c Booker T. Washington log cabin die proof, 1956

The POD honored Booker T. Washington once again in 1956, the centennial of his birth. The stamp's vignette features an image of a cabin similar to the one in which Washington was born.

Endnote

1) R.R. Wright, Sr., to Deputy Third Assistant Postmaster General Roy M. North, letter, July 20, 1939.

2) R.R. Wright to Postmaster General James A. Farley, letter, November 8, 1939.

References and Further Reading

George C. Hahn, United States Famous American Series of 1940 (State College: The American Philatelic Society, 1950).


Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 18:34

I take it you missed the bit (again) about them being TOLD the Germans were going to attempt it?

What the British didn't consider was that the German actions represented más than a simple reaction to WILFRED. but in fact represented a fullblown invasion planned for some considerable time!

TOLD the Germans were going to attempt it

Post por Dave Bender » 03 Jan 2011, 21:07

Receiving an intelligence report and believing it are two different things.

During late 1939 / early 1940 there were numerous intelligence reports concerning Norway. Both Britain and Germany had to compare these reports and make an educated guess as to what the enemy was up to. Germany guessed right. Britain guessed wrong.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 21:46

Receiving an intelligence report and believing it are two different things.

During late 1939 / early 1940 there were numerous intelligence reports concerning Norway

. because. in the meantime. the RAF had made a much more "substantial" contact with the ships moving north! Twelve Blenheim bombers of No 107 Squadron found the enemy shortly before 1:30 PM, seventy-eight miles farther north on before. The attack, though followed up with the search by a second force of Wellingtons, had no success, but they had reported the Germans much more accurately as one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers . again - no transports or troopships!

YOU however want this fleet to comprise one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers and one or more large passenger liners. I.E. Confirmation that the word from Copenhagen was correct.

Thus it wasn't a matter of. just "guessing" it was a matter of receiving intelligence, and needing confirmation/ corroboration of it. Historically, the subsequent intelligence (SEVERAL instances of air recce) provided more accurate intel. but intel contradicting the Copenhagen report. Here you want that fleet to be accompanied by thousands of tons of floating confimation that the Danes were actually correct.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por John T » 03 Jan 2011, 22:08

IMHO using 2 cruise liners instead of 10 DD's would have been disasterous because:
- slower cruising speed
- bigger targets
- likely slower unloading speed
- lack of armament to defeat/ persuade Norwegian coastal defenses
- 2000 Gebirgsjäger were enough historically, don't need 2-3 times that amount
..<snip>
The two liners would not have made it to Narvik pier.

I think it would have been prudent to use two liners and three Destroyers. Or throw in a cruiser too.
The Liners as ships where more expendable than ten destroyers and could have refuelled their escorts too.
So in my opinion Km who had nothing really usefull for power projection as well could have used them to something.
(but IIRC the dream where to convert them to carriers ?)


And some other notes regarding the Liners-

If spotted by the British, they might very well be identified as Armed Merchant cruisers trying to break out.
And why not add a couple of 15 cm guns to them too, in addition to the AA envisioned earlier in the tread?

The Liners Lifeboats where at least a reasonable mean to quickly unload personnel at least as efficient as the destroyers, Bremen had a 50% redundancy of lifeboat seats to actual passeneger capacity so most lifeboats could been loaded with a few tonns of equipment already before entering the Harbour. And note that Lifeboats where pretty big, 99 passengers seems to been a de facto standard so if we do not have to fill the liners with soldiers.
This is actually close to the Early British AP's that initially replaced the lifeboats in the derricks with landing crafts.
(as the British had designed proper landing crafts of the same size and weight to be used from liners)

Remember that German forces that did invade Norway had no landing crafts of any kind.
A motorized life boot is better than nothing

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por phylo_roadking » 03 Jan 2011, 22:34

John, there's a considerable difference between a merchant ship (even a period "merchant liner") and a true period passenger liner. Even if mistakenly indentified that first time by the RAF recce aircraft - then the second "contact", the attacking Blenheims, would most likely identify them correctly.

Secondly - even IF mis-identified as merchant raiders, this would make their interception even MORE vital anyway, for other reasons

Thirdly - their SECOND acquisition by the RAF would "prove" they weren't just armed merchantmen. Armed cruisers like the Pinguin were much slower than KM naval vessels or passenger liner the Pinguin for instance had a top speed of only 18-20mph. As noted by Dave, the liners were más rápido, more able to keep up with the KM's ships. if the flotilla spotted then due to be attacked wasn't where a simple time vs distance calculation SHOULD put them - then the British would KNOW there era something wrong with their initial identification.

John, I don't know if many captains would have wanted to try manouvering along a Norwegian fjord or into Narvik Basin around all those anchored ore ships with that much weight so far above the waterline! The word "untrimmed" comes to mind.

Which brings in other aspects I wonder what the turning circle of the putative liners at speed was, compared to a KM destroyer? Could they have maounvered up Ofotfjord? Or safely avoided the RN minefields?

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por John T » 03 Jan 2011, 22:58

. because. in the meantime. the RAF had made a much more "substantial" contact with the ships moving north! Twelve Blenheim bombers of No 107 Squadron found the enemy shortly before 1:30 PM, seventy-eight miles farther north on before. The attack, though followed up with the search by a second force of Wellingtons, had no success, but they had reported the Germans much more accurately as one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers . again - no transports or troopships!

YOU however want this fleet to comprise one battlecruiser or pocket battleship, two cruisers, and ten destroyers and one or more large passenger liners. I.E. Confirmation that the word from Copenhagen was correct.

Thus it wasn't a matter of. just "guessing" it was a matter of receiving intelligence, and needing confirmation/ corroboration of it. Historically, the subsequent intelligence (SEVERAL instances of air recce) provided more accurate intel. but intel contradicting the Copenhagen report. Here you want that fleet to be accompanied by thousands of tons of floating confimation that the Danes were actually correct.

But on April 7:th
the Export column, 48 800 GRT,
of the Tanker column 24 000 GRT
And the First transport column 72 00 GRT
Where already underway towards Norway.

But RN did not spot them.
In the Evening both Oslo and Copenhagen had reports of troop transports moving North.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por John T » 03 Jan 2011, 23:43

Is it ?
I fail to follow you claim, I thought the problem where if bremen where spotted as a troop transport or as a Armed Merchant cruiser?

Could you explain the difference between an Armed Merchant cruiser like HMS Rawalpindi and a passenger liner?

I suppose most captains knows a bit about metacentric height, the basic theories are available here:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metacentric_height

With a displacement of 55 kt how much is needed to make her "untrimmed" in a way that affects manoeuvrability ?
Me thinks the risk of explosion would be more relevant to bother about for the captain.

Does you seriously question if Bremen could manovre up the ofotfjord?
Avoided the minefield?
are you serious ?

Might needed tugs to get quaysides that's possible, but with four screws she might be surprisingly dexterious at low speed.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por phylo_roadking » 04 Jan 2011, 00:22

No. Why would I? Why would I explain the difference between a BRITISH armed merchant cruiser and a pasenger liner?

What I WILL do is illustrate the difference between what the GERMANS used as armed merchant cruisers and passenger liners.

The Pinguin.

The Bremen.

Do you think the huge superstructure, the lines of lifeboats, the one tiny deck cargo hatch compared to the Pinguin's two large ones would be the giveaway? Or would it perhaps be the two funnels? Or the fact that it's nearly twice the length of the Pinguin? (938 feet vs. 509 feet)

27 knots - that proves there's no german armed armed merchant cruisers in that convoy. The non-naval vessels would then tengo to be something big and capable of

1/ The RN laid their minefields in the Channel etc. so that their destroyers could manouver IN them safely they were to stop deeper-draught vessels and submarines. Do YOU think the Bremen had a deeper draught than British destroyers?

2/ The KM occasionally seemed (as I noted in another recent thread) to have difficulties manouvering their more manouverable destroyers in Ofotjord/Narvik Basin without running aground.

3/ Narvik basin was already quite crowded when the Germans arrived, as I noted before.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por Dave Bender » 04 Jan 2011, 18:38

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por phylo_roadking » 04 Jan 2011, 19:16

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por kfbr392 » 05 Jan 2011, 10:37

Juha and Phylo,
how about you continue the discussion of a possible German glider landing in the Oslo fjord in a seperate thread, no?

This thread should remain reserved for discussions on composition and actions of the German Kriegsschiffgruppe 1, the one going to Narvik.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por Polar bear » 05 Jan 2011, 11:43

the consideration (from a german planner´s point of view) that the "alternate group 1" liners might be more prone to submarine attack in the North Sea and off Southern Norway hasn´t been mentioned, yet.

BREMEN had been close to being attacked on her return trip from Murmansk.

Re: April 4th, 1940. German invasion force for Narvik.

Post por kfbr392 » 05 Jan 2011, 13:10

Any German ship/ convoy entering Narvik on April 9th, 1940:
- must be fast on the way up from Germany
- must be able to overcome Norwegian coastal gun and warship opposition
- has less than 24h of safe unloading the Gebirgsjäger
- will be bottled in by superior Royal Navy forces as early as 0410hrs on April 9th
- will be confronted by RN by the early hours of April 10th


With this benfit of hindsight, I propose the following scenarios:
Scenario I
as OTL, but Jan Wellem awaits in some desolate spot around 150nm north of Narvik 10DDs break out in the late evening of April 9th (visibility was very low) if engaged by RN, 2 DD's, lay fog, fire guns, and draw the RN upon them and go south, while the other 8 DD's proceed to Jan Wellem, refuel and either sneak south or go to "Basis Nord" in Murmansk

Scenario II
as OTL, but Gruppe 1 consists of 4 DD's (not carrying troops) and Liner BREMEN. 3 DD's speed ahead and defeat Norwegian resistance, then Bremen disembarks Gebirgsjäger 4 DD's refuel from Jan Wellem (which here is specifically equipped and trained for speedy refuelling) All ships break out in the late evening of April 9th The DD's carry a deck load of mines, which they drop on the way out of the fjord It boils down to this: are 10-6 DD's worth more than BREMEN?


A note on German Hilfskreuzer:
The KM converted the first wave of HSK's from merchant ships in secrect in the Winter of 1939/40.
The British converted liners to become auxillary cruisers. They did not know in April 1940, that german HSK's do outwardly appear to be merchants.
Thus, a liner going north in the North Sea with troops for Narvik, even one with a DD escort, might appear as a HSK to the RN, causing them not to suspect an invasion of Norway from this bit of intelligence.


Founding by Richard and Maurice McDonald Edit

The McDonald family moved from Manchester, New Hampshire to Hollywood, California in the late 1930s, where brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald ("Dick" and "Mac") began working as set movers and handymen at Motion-Picture studios. [1] In 1937, their father Patrick McDonald opened "The Airdrome", a food stand, on Huntington Drive (Route 66) near the Monrovia Airport in the Los Angeles County city of Monrovia, California [2]

In October 1948, after the McDonald brothers realized that most of their profits came from selling hamburgers, they closed down their successful carhop drive-in to establish a streamlined system with a simple menu which consisted of only hamburgers, cheeseburgers, potato chips, coffee, soft drinks, and apple pie. [3]

In April 1952, the brothers decided they needed an entirely new building in order to achieve two goals: further efficiency improvements, and a more eye-catching appearance. They collected recommendations for an architect and interviewed at least four, finally choosing Stanley Clark Meston, an architect practicing in nearby Fontana. [1] The brothers and Meston worked together closely in the design of their new building. They achieved the extra efficiencies they needed by, among other things, drawing the actual measurements of every piece of equipment in chalk on a tennis court behind the McDonald house (with Meston's assistant Charles Fish). [4] The new restaurant's design achieved a high level of notice thanks to gleaming surfaces of red and white ceramic tile, stainless steel, brightly colored sheet metal, and glass pulsing red, white, yellow, and green neon and two 25-foot yellow sheet-metal arches trimmed in neon, called "golden arches" even at the design stage. A third, smaller arch sign at the roadside hosted a pudgy character in a chef's hat, known as Speedee, striding across the top, trimmed in animated neon. Further marketing techniques were implemented to change McDonald's from a sit down restaurant to a fast food chain. They used such things as turning off the heating to prevent people wanting to stay so long, fixed and angled seating so the customer would sit over their food promoting them to eat faster, spreading the seats further apart so being less of a sociable place to dine in, and giving their customers branded cone shaped cups forcing them to hold their drink whilst eating which would speed up the eating process. [1]

In late 1953, with only a rendering of Meston's design in hand, the brothers began seeking franchisees. [1] Their first franchisee was Neil Fox, a distributor for General Petroleum Corporation. Fox's stand, the first with Meston's golden arches design, opened in May 1953 at Central Avenue and Indian School Road in Phoenix, Arizona. Their second franchisee was the team of Fox's brother-in-law Roger Williams and Burdette "Bud" Landon, both of whom also worked for General Petroleum. Williams and Landon opened their stand on August 18, 1953 at 10207 Lakewood Boulevard in Downey, California. The Downey stand has the distinction of being the oldest surviving McDonald's restaurant. [5] [6] [7]

Ray Kroc joins the company and expands its franchise operation Edit

In 1954, Ray Kroc, a seller of Prince Castle brand Multimixer milkshake machines, learned that the McDonald brothers were using eight of his machines in their San Bernardino restaurant. His curiosity was piqued, and he went to take a look at the restaurant. He was joined by good friend Charles Lewis who had suggested to Kroc several improvements to the McDonald's burger recipe. At this point, the McDonald brothers had six franchise locations in operation. [8]

Believing the McDonald's formula was a ticket to success, Kroc suggested they franchise their restaurants throughout the country. The brothers were skeptical, however, that the self-service approach could succeed in colder, rainier climates furthermore, their thriving business in San Bernardino, and franchises already operating or planned, made them reluctant to risk a national venture. [1] Kroc offered to take the major responsibility for setting up the new franchises elsewhere. He returned to his home outside of Chicago with rights to set up McDonald's restaurants throughout the country, except in a handful of territories in California and Arizona already licensed by the McDonald brothers. The brothers were to receive one-half of one percent of gross sales. [1]

Sonneborn model and shift to real estate holdings Edit

In 1956, Ray Kroc met Harry J. Sonneborn, a former VP of finance for Tastee-Freez, who offered an idea to accelerate the growth and investment grade of Kroc's planned McDonald's operation: Own the real estate that future franchises would be built on. Kroc hired Sonneborn and his plan was executed through forming a separate company called Franchise Realty Corp. which was solely designed to hold McDonald's real estate. The new company signed leases and took out mortgages for both lands and buildings, in turn then passing these costs on to the franchisee with a 20-40% markup and a reduced initial deposit of $950. [9] [10] The "Sonneborn model" of real estate ownership within the franchise persists to this day, possibly being the most important financial decision in the company's history. McDonald's present-day real estate holdings represent $37.7Bn on its balance sheet, about 99% of the company's assets and 35% of its annual gross revenue. [11]


British Expeditionary Force

With the outbreak of the Second World War, the planning assumption was a German invasion through the Low Countries and into France, the same scenario as occurred in 1914. As the likelihood of war grew in 1938, plans were formulated for the creation of another expeditionary force to be sent to France as soon as war was declared. These plans were activated on 3 September 1939, with the Chief of the Imperial General Staff, General The Viscount GORT assuming command of the new field formation. The formations deployed to France increased steadily throughout late 1939 and into 1940. I Corps with the 1 Infantry Division and 2 Infantry Division arrived first in September 1939. II Corps with the 3 Infantry Division and 4 Infantry Division became operational in France in October 1939. The 5 Infantry Division arrived on 19 December 1939.

DOWNLOADABLE DOCUMENTS (pdfs)

Higher Formations History and Personnel
» B.E.F. History & Personnel (Personnel)
» B.E.F. Campaign Overview (BEING UPDATED)
» B.E.F. Divisional and Brigade Commanders (IN PREPARTION)

The winter of 1939 was very cold, which limited the activity of the B.E.F.. Training continued into 1940, boosted with the arrival in France of the first Territorial Army formations. Five first-line divisions arrived before the German invasion, these being:

5 January 1940 – 48 (South Midland) Infantry Division
20 January 1940 – 50 (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
4 January 1940 – 51 (Highland) Infantry Division
1 April 1940 – 44 (Home Counties) Infantry Division
12 April 1940 – 42 (East Lancashire) Infantry Division.

In addition to the five first line Territorial Army divisions deployed to France, three second line divisions were also sent to join the British Expeditionary Force. Éstas eran:

12 April 1940 – 12 (Eastern) Infantry Division
22 April 1940 – 23 (Northumbrian) Infantry Division
24 April 1940 – 46 Infantry Division.


Swedish military strength in April 1940

Post por historygeek2021 » 19 Feb 2021, 06:55

Does anyone have information on Swedish military strength in April 1940? It is possible that Sweden could have become entangled in Operation Weserübung, for example, if the Allies landed in Norway first. Was Sweden fully mobilized?

If Churchill had decided to stay in Narvik in June 1940, the Germans would have had no way to retake the port other than through Sweden. How much resistance could Sweden have put up against Germany?

Re: Swedish military strength in April 1940

Post por Ro/Lt » 20 Feb 2021, 19:15

Re: Swedish military strength in April 1940

Post por John T » 20 Feb 2021, 23:16

Does anyone have information on Swedish military strength in April 1940? It is possible that Sweden could have become entangled in Operation Weserübung, for example, if the Allies landed in Norway first. Was Sweden fully mobilized?

If Churchill had decided to stay in Narvik in June 1940, the Germans would have had no way to retake the port other than through Sweden. How much resistance could Sweden have put up against Germany?

I have done that scenario in a game - "The Operation art of War IV"
You can find the scenario here:
https://www.matrixgames.com/forums/tm.asp?m=4763066

In the scenario briefing I wrote:

The history of the Swedish armed forces during ww2 has mostly been written in a context to explain Swedish actions during the war and preserve a high defense expenditure after the war.
After WW2, Norway and Denmark became members of NATO while Sweden maintained its neutrality. Sweden had managed to stay out of military actions and the government's neutrality policy had overwhelming public support. The only problem was how to explain the concessions given to Germany. The simplest explanation was that the concessions were forced upon Sweden and there where no way to stand up against Germany since Sweden was so military weak. This explanation found consensus, mostly because it was in most respects true but also as it made the situation to look unique and something that could have been avoided if only Sweden had been better military prepared. And at the same time, it made it clear that Sweden had no alternatives to act as she did.
As the war progressed the Swedes built confidence in her own military capacity. But to what extent this was due to Swedish propaganda, own rearmament, and to what extent Germany waned is seldom elaborated on in Swedish military history.

This history writing had many benefits
· “small state realism” was a fairly truthful representation that most Swedes could subscribe to
· Those who had been under Nazi influence simply could claim that they only had “adjusted” themselves out of necessity
· It suited those who wanted to continue the path of neutrality as it basically ignored the problems of neutrality
· It was a good argument for the armed forces to maintain large defense expenditures

As this way of explaining history was uncontroversial between the political and the military leadership the history of Swedish military inability in the earlier parts of ww2 where perpetuated.
That six million Swedes could not stand up alone against seventy million Germans or hundred and seventy million Soviets is clear but very few Swedes today know that Swedish defense expenditure during the thirties was twice the Finnish and three to four times the Norwegian. But that’s enough on how the history has been told.

In 1925 army funding was reduced by 25%, Six infantry divisions became four, cutting the number of cavalry regiments in half, and closed or combined a large number of other regiments. Conscript training reduced to basic training of 140 days and two refresher trainings at 30 days each. The number of officers also reduced by 25%. The territorial army, of conscripts aged 32 to 42 were abolished in peacetime. The most important thing was that the Liberals and Social Democrats accepted that the goal of the armed forces was to defend the country’s existence, not only be a “Neutrality guard”. Since they still did not want to waste money on the armed forces they created a theory of “Elasticity”, In calm and peaceful times, like the twenties as little as possible should be spent on arms, but if international tension rose spending would increase.

In 1936 Defense expenditure were increased by 30%. a ten-year plan would bring back the number of Infantry divisions to six, extend basic training to 170 days, doubled the air force expenditure and train and equip local defenses with the older conscripts. The Austrian Anschluss triggered an extra allotment of 70 MSEK in June 1938 and the same amount once more when Germany invaded Slovakia in March 1939. With other funds for specific investments. Swedish Defense expenditure almost doubled between 1936/37 and 1938/39.

After a brief partial mobilization in September 1939, Neutrality watch were upheld by air defenses, naval and coastal artillery units. To man the growing local defenses, enlisted ranks were trained in some School units with a secondary combat role.
All conscripts of the field army with the earlier 140 days of basic training had “extra training “ during six weeks. This refresher training was spread out between October 1939 and March 1940 to keep three reduced infantry regiment available.

During the Finnish-Russian winter war Sweden mobilized two divisions and grouped them at the Swedish-Finnish border. In the last days of March The VI. Infantry division was ordered to continue training until May 15 and the V. Infantry division to return to barracks and demobilize at the latest the 15:th April.

Swedish intelligence started to receive rumors of German preparation to attack north during the winter war. Even though the winter war ended on the 13 of March, information kept arriving about German preparations. One such source was the Swedish consulate in Stettin, located in the harbor just around the corner from the “Haken Terasse” where German troops trained to embark transport ships.

The first Swedish action to improve readiness in southern Sweden was to keep the reserve NCO school companies in service after their graduation on March 30.
Línea de tiempo:
• April 2 Swedish Air force started to patrol southern Baltic up to the German territorial border.
• April 4 Swedish C ask the minister of defense permission to mobilize all of the field army. The C in C was told to wait until more solid information available.
• April 6 The 1. Army corps HQ, the Cavalry brigade, air defenses etcetera ordered to call up reserve officers and enlisted ranks to prepare mobilization.
• April 8 The 1. Army corps HQ and the Cavalry brigade mobilize from the 10:th,
I and III Infantry divisions, local defenses of L7 and some other units ordered to call up reserve officers and enlisted ranks to prepare mobilization. Air force and Navy to be combat-ready as soon as possible.

On the morning of April 9 Sweden had 87 000 men in uniform.

A few hours after German Diplomats delivered their ultimatums to the Danish and Norwegian Governments, Germany demanded that Sweden
• Would remain neutral and not mobilize
• For their own safety, Swedish Navy vessels would remain within territorial waters
• Iron ore trade with Germany should continue
• Allow German signal traffic from Norway to Germany on Swedish cables.

And that Sweden would not, for the time being, be affected as long Sweden kept calm and did not incite the Danish or Norwegian Governments to refuse the German demands.

Sweden declared neutrality in the conflict.

So Swedish Field army was on war footing by the 15:th of April, but large parts still at their barracks.


In 1971, five high school students in San Rafael, California, [5] [6] used the term "4:20" in connection with a plan to search for an abandoned cannabis crop, based on a treasure map made by the grower. [7] [8] Calling themselves the Waldos, [9] [10] because their typical hang-out spot "was a wall outside the school", [11] the five students—Steve Capper, Dave Reddix, Jeffrey Noel, Larry Schwartz, and Mark Gravich [12] —designated the Louis Pasteur statue [13] on the grounds of San Rafael High School as their meeting place, and 4:20 pm as their meeting time. [11] The Waldos referred to this plan with the phrase "4:20 Louis". After several failed attempts to find the crop, the group eventually shortened their phrase to "4:20", which ultimately evolved into a code-word the teens used to refer to consuming cannabis. [7]

Steven Hager of High Times popularized the story of the Waldos. [14] The first High Times mention of 4:20 smoking and a 4/20 holiday appeared in May 1991, [15] and the connection to the Waldos appeared in December 1998. Hager attributed the early spread of the phrase to Grateful Dead followers [16] —after "Waldo" Reddix became a roadie for the Grateful Dead's bassist, Phil Lesh [12] —and called for 4:20 pm to be the socially accepted time of the day to consume cannabis. [dieciséis]

April 20 has become an international counterculture holiday, where people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis. [3] [17] [18] Many such events have a political nature to them, advocating the liberalization and legalization of cannabis. Vivian McPeak, a founder of Seattle's Hempfest states that 4/20 is "half celebration and half call to action". [19] Paul Birch calls it a global movement and suggests that one cannot stop events like these. [20]

On that day many marijuana users protest in civil disobedience by gathering in public to smoke at 4:20 pm. [21]

As marijuana continues to be decriminalized and legalized around the world, Steve DeAngelo, cannabis activist and founder of California's Harborside Health Center, notes that "even if our activist work were complete, 420 morphs from a statement of conscience to a celebration of acceptance, a celebration of victory, a celebration of our amazing connection with this plant" and that he thinks that "it will always be worthy of celebration". [22] [23]

In North America Edit

North American observances have been held at many locations, including:

    : Washington Square Park in Manhattan[24] : Boston Common[25] : "Hippie Hill" in Golden Gate Park near the Haight-Ashbury[26] : Porter College meadows at the University of California, Santa Cruz[27][28] : The Vancouver Art Gallery[29][30] and Sunset Beach between 2016 and 2019. [31] : the Mount Royal monument [32][33] : Civic Center Park[34] : Parliament Hill and Major's Hill Park[35][36] : The Alberta Legislature Building[37] : campus of the University of Colorado Boulder[6][38][39][40][41] : Nathan Phillips Square[42] and Yonge-Dundas Square[43] : campus of the University of California, Berkeley on the Memorial Glade north of the Doe Memorial Library. [44] : Mexican Senate under the slogan Planton 420. [45]

In Australia Edit

Australian observances have been held at many locations, over many years, including:

  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney City: Martin Place, NSW (2019) [46]
  • 420 Picnic 2019 – Melbourne, VIC[47]
  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney, NSW (2018) [48][49][50][51]
  • "Who Are We Hurting?" – Sydney City: Kings Cross, NSW (2017) [52][53]

Elsewhere Edit

In Ljubljana, Slovenia, the University of Ljubljana's student organization has carried out several annual cannabis-themed protests that have contributed to the debate on cannabis status in Slovenia and the subsequent legislation proposals in 2018 by gathering responses from various political parties in Slovenia and ranking them accordingly. [61] [62]

In Northern Cyprus, known for strict drug laws and intolerance to cannabis consumption, [63] the first 420 event was held in the capital city Lefkoşa in 2015. On April 20, 2017 a small group of protesters carried out an event near the parliament building and made a public statement, demanding the legalization of cannabis sale, consumption, and production with state regulations. [64]

Traffic safety Edit

Despite two studies reporting a supposed increase in the risk of fatal motor vehicle crashes on April 20, [65] [66] further investigation and analysis found the evidence did not support such claims. [67] [68] [69] [70]

Stolen signs Edit

Signs bearing the number 420 have been frequently stolen. In Colorado, the Colorado Department of Transportation replaced the Mile Marker 420 sign on I-70 east of Denver with one reading 419.99 in an attempt to stop the thievery [71] however, the folklore of the 419.99 sign has caused it to be stolen, too, as well as becoming a tourist destination. As of August 2018, the sign was missing, presumed stolen. [72] The Colorado DOT usually will not replace signs that are repeatedly taken, but began the practice of replacing further down the road after "69" mile marker signs were frequently stolen—these were replaced with "68.5 mile" ones. [73] The Idaho Department of Transportation (ITD) replaced the mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Highway 95, just south of Coeur d'Alene, with mile marker 419.9. [74] The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) implemented similar measures, [75] but only replaced one of the two 420 signs in the state, with the remaining one being subsequently stolen. [73] According to El Washington Post, there are eleven 420 mile markers in the US, after three replacements and one stolen and not replaced. [76] In Goodhue County, Minnesota, officials have changed "420 St" street signs to "42x St". [77] The mile marker 420 sign on U.S. Route 89, the only 420 marker in the state of Utah, is frequently stolen. [78]

Legislation and other government recognition Edit

In 2003, California Senate Bill 420 was introduced to regulate medical marijuana use, in deliberate reference [ cita necesaria ] to the status of 420 in marijuana culture. An unsuccessful 2010 bill to legalize cannabis in Guam was called Bill 420. [79] A North Dakota bill to legalize cannabis was HB 1420, introduced in January 2021. [80]

The Marijuana Freedom and Opportunity Act (which if enacted would decriminalize and deschedule cannabis in the United States) was announced by Senator and Senate Minority Leader Chuck Schumer (D-New York) on April 20, 2018. [81] [82] On January 9, 2019, H.R. 420 was introduced into the 116th Congress by Representative Earl Blumenauer (D-Oregon), named the Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act, which is designed to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act and return regulation to the states. [83]

The State of Colorado auctioned off several cannabis-themed personalized license plates in 2021, with the bidding to be closed on April 20 (4/20). The highest bid shortly before the auction closed was over $6,500 for "ISIT420". [84]

Following the success of Washington, D.C.'s Initiative 71 to legalize cannabis in 2014, Mayor Muriel Bowser granted license plate number 420 to the campaign's leader, Adam Eidinger. [85]

Literatura Editar

Several books about cannabis have "420" in the title, including the cannabis cookbooks The 420 Cannabis Cookbook, published by Simon & Schuster, [86] and The 420 Gourmet published in 2016 by HarperCollins. [87] [88]


Ver el vídeo: The 1940 Census - Census of Housing (Agosto 2022).

Video, Sitemap-Video, Sitemap-Videos